By Prodyut Das

Sports Physical Therapy

Sports Physical therapy includes first aid, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of injuries, massage and aromatherapy from the casual player to sports persons who need a higher level of mobility and performance.

Sports Physical Therapy Includes

1- Basic Science of Ligaments and Tendons Related to Rehabilitation

  • 1. Recognize the complexity of the biology and biomechanics of ligaments and tendons
  • 2. Use an understanding of the biology and biomechanics of ligaments and tendons in treatment after injury in Sports Physical Therapy
  • 3. Appreciate new trends in the management of ligament and tendon injuries

2- Understanding Muscle Contraction

  • 1. Understand functions of skeletal muscle tissue
  • 2. Identify the characteristics of muscle tissue that make movement possible
  • 3. Understand the macroscopic and microscopic organization of skeletal muscle tissue
  • 4. Relate the molecular structure of the myofilaments to the sliding-filament theory of muscle contraction
  • 5. Identify the regions of a sarcomere, and changes that occur in these regions during contraction
  • 6. Explain the events involved in excitation-contraction coupling
  • 7. Describe the sequence of events involved in the generation of force within the contractile elements
  • 8. Differentiate muscle fiber types on the basis of contractile and metabolic properties
  • 9. Discuss the ramifications of fiber type distribution on the likelihood of success in a given athletic event
  • 10. Describe the nerve supply to muscle
  • 11. Describe the sequence of events at the neuromuscular junction
  • 12. Describe the structure and innervation of the muscle spindle, and explain how the muscle spindle functions in the myotatic reflex
  • 13. Differentiate between dynamic and static flexibility
  • 14. Identify the anatomical factors that influence flexibility

3- Anaerobic Metabolism during Exercise

  • 1. Describe the energy continuum as it relates to varying durations of maximal exercise
  • 2. Provide examples of sports or events within sports in which the adenosine triphosphate–phosphocreatine (ATP-PC), lactic acid, or oxygen system predominates
  • 3. List the major variables that are typically measured to describe the anaerobic response to exercise
  • 4. Explain the physiological reasons why lactate may accumulate in the blood
  • 5. Distinguish between the power and the capacity of the ATP-PC, lactic acid, and oxygen systems
  • 6. Identify the oxygen deficit and excess post exercise oxygen consumption, and explain the causes of each
  • 7. Describe the changes in ATP and PC that occur during constant-load, heavy exercise lasting 3 minutes or less
  • 8. Describe the changes in lactate accumulation that occur during constant-load, high-intensity, anaerobic exercise lasting 3 minutes or less; short-term, light to moderate, and moderate to heavy submaximal aerobic exercise; longterm moderate to heavy submaximal aerobic exercise; incremental exercise to maximum; and dynamic resistance exercise
  • 9. Differentiate among the terms anaerobic threshold, ventilatory threshold, and lactate threshold, and explain why anaerobic threshold is a misnomer
  • 10. Discuss why the accumulation of lactate is a physiological and performance problem
  • 11. Explain the fate of lactate during exercise and recovery
  • 12. Compare anaerobic metabolism during exercise in Sports Physical Therapy for children and adolescents versus young and middle-age adults; males versus females; and the elderly versus youngand middle-aged adults, and cite possible reasons for these differences

4- Aerobic Metabolism during Exercise

  • 1. Describe cardiovascular and respiratory anatomy and physiology, as well as describe the physiological processes of aerobic metabolism
  • 2. Identify the acute cardiovascular and respiratory responses resulting from aerobic and resistive exercise, as well as describe the long-term cardiorespiratory adaptations that occur with both aerobic and resistive training
  • 3. Discriminate age- and sex-related differences in acute exercise responses and long-term training adaptations
  • 4. Design an appropriate age-, sex-, and task-specific training program to enhance cardiorespiratory function

5- Muscle Fatigue

  • 1. Discuss the underlying causes of muscle fatigue
  • 2. Describe the use of in vitro and in vivo models for examining different mechanisms of muscle fatigue
  • 3. Identify and discuss the different peripheral mechanisms involved in muscle fatigue
  • 4. Describe the interaction of the various energy systems to the onset of muscle fatigue
  • 5. Discuss how accumulation of metabolic by-products can induce muscle fatigue
  • 6. Discuss central nervous system involvement in muscle fatigue
  • 7. Describe how task dependency influences muscle fatigue

6- Overuse Injury and Muscle Damage

  • 1. Identify the predisposing, precipitating, and perpetuating factors of muscle damage and overuse in Sports Physical Therapy
  • 2. Describe muscle damage secondary to metabolic overload
  • 3. Describe muscle damage secondary to mechanical factors
  • 4. Summarize the physiological effects of muscle damage
  • 5. Compare the damaging effects of isometric, concentric, and eccentric exercises on the muscle
  • 6. Identify the increased risk of muscle damage in the young athlete
  • 7. List the classification of muscle strain
  • 8. Describe the healing of muscle cells and fibers
  • 9. Summarize the appropriate management of damage to muscle

7- Physiological Effects of Overtraining and Detraining

  • 1. Define exercise training and identify the goal of exercise training for athletes in Sports Physical Therapy
  • 2. List and explain the training principles
  • 3. Define and explain the goals of periodization
  • 4. Describe the cycle types within each phase of periodization
  • 5. Define and differentiate between overreaching and the overtraining syndrome (OTS)
  • 6. Distinguish between sympathetic and parasympathetic forms of OTS
  • 7. Discuss the major hypotheses proposed to explain the causes and mechanisms of OTS
  • 8. Identify components important to monitor during training
  • 9. Suggest techniques to prevent OTS
  • 10. Identify treatment for OTS
  • 11. Define detraining and indicate the factors that influence the magnitude and rate of loss of training adaptations
  • 12. Describe the consequences of detraining on the metabolic system
  • 13. Describe the consequences of detraining on the cardiorespiratory system
  • 14. Describe the consequences of detraining on the neuromuscular system

8- Pathophysiology of Injury to the Overhead-Throwing Athlete

  • 1. Identify the phases of throwing
  • 2. Describe the muscle activity during the phases of throwing
  • 3. Describe the changes in soft tissues surrounding the glenohumeral joint as a result of overhead-throwing activities
  • 4. Identify changes in the range-of-motion measurements specific to overhead-throwing athletes
  • 5. Identify changes in the posture of the scapula specific to overhead-throwing athletes
  • 6. Describe the different theories associated with the etiology of injury to the overhead-throwing athlete
  • 7. Describe the appropriate management of injuries to the overhead-throwing athlete

9- The Anatomy and Pathophysiology of the CORE

  • 1. Define the hip and trunk CORE
  • 2. Evaluate the CORE muscles and structure
  • 3. Delineate the difference between local and global muscles on the back
  • 4. Identify the muscles of the abdominal area that are considered stabilizing
  • 5. Identify the spinal muscles that stiffen the spine
  • 6. Evaluate the CORE dysfunction
  • 7. Instruct patients in exercises designed to strength hip and trunk muscles
  • 8. Identify the correlation between muscle weakness in the hip and lower extremity injuries

10- From the CORE to the Floor—Interrelationships

  • 1. Identify interdependency, linkage, and function between proximal and distal joints in the lower extremity
  • 2. Describe abnormal mechanics from the foot up the kinetic chain
  • 3. Describe abnormal mechanics from the core down the kinetic chain
  • 4. List structural malalignments of the lower extremity and their influence on lower extremity pathomechanics in Sports Physical Therapy
  • 5. Identify features of gait and functional assessment
  • 6. Describe functional exercise concepts that maximize core to- the-foot interdependency
  • 7. Summarize the science of foot orthotic invention in Sports Physical Therapy
  • 8. Describe foot orthotic strategies in the treatment of abnormal foot mechanics and common pain patterns

11- Evaluation of Glenohumeral, Acromioclavicular, and Scapulothoracic Joints in the Overhead-Throwing Athlete

  • 1. Identify the key clinical tests used for evaluation of the rotator cuff, labrum, and scapula
  • 2. Characterize scapular pathology
  • 3. Break down and evaluate throwing mechanics and understand the consequences of foot placement and stride characteristics in the lower extremity and their effect on upper extremity function
  • 4. Perform and interpret manual and instrumented muscular strength tests

12- Evaluation of the Trunk and Hip CORE

  • 1. Discuss the inherent difficulties in evaluating athletic patients
  • 2. Describe the components of the trunk and hip CORE evaluation
  • 3. Understand the different levels of evidence supporting the CORE evaluation tests and measures
  • 4. Summarize the cluster of underlying CORE impairments commonly found with athletes

13- Strength Training Concepts in the Athlete

  • 1. Describe the physiological adaptations within the muscle following strength exercises
  • 2. Provide examples of the changes that occur with neural adaptations within muscle
  • 3. List the major contributors to improving muscle strength in Sports Physical Therapy
  • 4. Explain the differences among strength, power, and endurance
  • 5. Distinguish among how to train Type I, Type IIA, and Type IIB muscle fiber types
  • 6. Identify the number of repetitions, sets, and amount of resistance necessary to increase muscle strength and hypertrophy
  • 7. Describe the effects of aging on muscle
  • 8. Describe the phases of periodization training
  • 9. Describe the differences among eccentric, concentric, and isometric exercises
  • 10. Provide examples of off-season, in-season, and maintenance programs for athletes

14- Plyometrics in Rehabilitation

  • 1. Understand the physiology of plyometric exercises
  • 2. Design a functional progression of plyometric exercises
  • 3. Determine the physiological requirements before starting a plyometric exercise program
  • 4. Determine the importance of posture and jumping techniques in plyometric exercises
  • 5. Identify the landing strategies in plyometric exercises
  • 6. Design a plyometric training program
  • 7. Integrate foot work into speed development programs
  • 8. Give objectives for jumping patterns
  • 9. Understand how to progress an athlete in work, intensity, and volume

15- Neuromuscular Training

  • 1. Discuss the importance of proprioception in the lower limb and upper limb
  • 2. Describe the components of the sensorimotor system
  • 3. Discuss the role of the sensorimotor system in neuromuscular control
  • 4. Define postural control and describe how postural control is achieved in stance and gait
  • 5. Identify techniques used for assessment of neuromuscular function
  • 6. Discuss the various effects an injury may have on neuromuscular function

16- Manual Therapy in Sports Rehabilitation

  • 1. Understand the role of manual therapy in rehabilitation following injury
  • 2. Identify repair process and adaptation process
  • 3. Understand the multidimensional nature of repair and adaptation
  • 4. Identify the signals and stimuli needed to assist repair and adaptation
  • 5. Identify the manual techniques that provide these stimuli
  • 6. Use the dimensional model to match suitable manual techniques to underlying processes in Sports Physical Therapy
  • 7. Identify when to use stretching, pumping, or neuromuscular techniques
  • 8. Understand how to develop a treatment plan in Sports Physical Therapy

17- Nutrition for the Athlete

  • 1. Estimate daily total energy needs
  • 2. Describe the appropriate amount of carbohydrate, protein, and fat for an athlete’s diet
  • 3. Describe the appropriate protocol for carbohydrate loading
  • 4. Identify the appropriate nutrient for consumption, before, during, and after exercise
  • 5. Describe optimal fluid intake guidelines for exercise
  • 6. Evaluate ergogenic aids for safety and effectiveness
  • 7. Understand the influence of exercise on gastrointestinal function and the effect of diet
  • 8. Describe how to evaluate the optimal body weight and composition for an athlete

Read about good Sports Residency Program Here

18- Approach to Differential Diagnosis in Orthopedics

  • 1. Identify the important aspects of an orthopedic medical history
  • 2. Describe the different components of a physical examination
  • 3. Differentiate among the various diagnostic tests used to make a diagnosis
  • 4. Describe various treatment approaches based on the medical diagnosis
  • 5. Understand how to develop a working diagnosis
  • 6. Describe the correlations between the diagnosis and treatment regimens
  • 7. Understand when to change the treatment on the basis of a re-evaluation

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