Physiotherapy exercises can improve the ability to use parts of the body that have been affected by disease or injury. Exercising daily plays a crucial role in the process of healing and recovering from injury or disease.
Range of motion exercises are also called "ROM" exercises. These physiotherapy exercises are done to keep from losing muscle strength or to increase it. There are 4 levels of ROM exercises.
Active exercise is an exercise in which the patient exerts force to complete an action, e.g. standing up from bed. The Physiotherapist is typically a supervisor and provides little to no assistance to the patient unless a problem arises, i.e. fall.
Passive exercise is an exercise in which the Physiotherapist exerts force on the patient to complete an action, e.g. assisted range of motion (ROM) exercises. the Physiotherapist is physically moving a client's body to prevent thrombosis, atrophy, etc. This is typical in -paresis or -plegia patients.
Resistance exercise is also known as strength training, and it is performed to increase the strength and mass of muscles, bone strength and metabolism. It is important for you to gain sufficient muscle strength, because it can help you perform daily activities with ease. Resistance exercise stimulates the development of small proteins in muscle cells, which will in turn enhance your muscles' ability to generate force.
There are basically three different ways to do resistance exercises, and they are weight machines, free weights and calisthenics. When you are using weight machines, you can choose the weight you want to lift by adding or removing plates, but your movements will be dictated by the machines you use. On the other hand, free weights allow you to determine and control the position of your body when you are lifting weights. Calisthenics are performed without the use of weights, and they include physiotherapy exercises such as push ups, sit ups and chin ups. In these physiotherapy exercises, your body weight acts as the resistance force.
Joint mobilization is a treatment technique used to manage musculoskeletal dysfunction. Most manipulative and mobilization techniques are performed by physical therapists, and fall under the category of manual therapy.
Mobilizations are used to restore joint play that has been lost due to injury or disease. In order for an individual to kick his leg out, there must be sufficient joint play, or freedom for the tibia to move on the femur.
Mobilizations and manipulations should not be done in the following circumstances:
Suspension training is a tool that uses body weight and gravity to challenge the neuromuscular system in ways conventional exercises are unable to accomplish. The suspension trainer provides an alternative to working out with an exercise machine. The system-which uses a device that hangs from the ceiling-was developed by Navy Seals.
All exercises are performed standing or in suspension, thus increasing stabilizing musculature and posture, integrating multi-joint physiotherapy exercises for enhanced coordination and neuromuscular recruitment.
Suspension training begins with an upside-down, Y-shaped strap system hanging securely overhead. Exercises involve the user holding on with one or two hands or feet with one or two limbs contacting the ground. The user must always be in contact with the ground, except when performing more advanced plyometric physiotherapy exercises.
Planned relaxation calms anxiety and helps your body and mind recover from everyday rush and stress. Music, a long soak in the bath, or a walk in the park do the trick for some people, but for others it's not so easy. If you feel you need help with learning to relax, try a relaxation or meditation class. Your GP and local library will have information about these.
Good posture is nothing more than keeping your body in alignment. What it looks like when standing is a straight back, squared shoulders, chin up, chest out, stomach in. If you can draw a straight line from your earlobe through your shoulder, hip, knee, to the middle of your ankle.
The spine has two natural curves that you need to maintain called the 'double C' or 'S' curves, these are the curves found from the base of your head to your shoulders and the curve from the upper back to the base of the spine. When standing straight up, make sure that your weight is evenly distributed on your feet. You might feel like you are leaning forward, and look stupid, but you don't.
In its most general form, Gait training is the act of learning how to walk. However, the term is more often used in reference to a person learning how to walk again after injury or with a disability. Physiotherapists, generally help their patients with gait training.
Gait training can take a number of forms, but repetition of the actual motions performed during walking is the most important factor. Parallel bars may be used to help with gait training, especially in the early stages when a patient is first learning or re-learning to walk. They involve a person walking between two handrails to support themselves, often with the therapist either helping to support the patient or physically moving the patient's legs. Gait trainer or other gait aids are also utilized.
Hydrotherapy is the use of water to provide therapeutic effects. This is quite a wide ranging topic and can include treatments such as steam rooms and clonic hydrotherapy, but in this case we are referring to the use of water (in a hydrotherapy pool) to help with musculoskeletal and neural rehabilitation, as often used in physiotherapy exercises.
Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) is a form of stretching in which a muscle is alternatingly stretched passively and contracted. The technique targets nerve receptors of a muscle to extend its length. This stretching procedure is designed for physical therapist and occupational therapist in the 1940s and 1950s to treat the patients of paralysis. It is usually a combination of passive stretching and isometric contraction. The PNF positions encourage flexibility and coordination in the limbs. It helps to quick gains in range of motion and specially used by atheletes to improve performance. PNF is an advanced form of flexibility training that involves both stretching and contraction of the muscle group being targeted.
Indications of PNF : -
Massage is the manipulating of superficial and deeper layers of muscle and connective tissue using various techniques, to enhance function, aid in the healing process, decrease muscle reflex activity, inhibits motor-neuron excitability and promote relaxation and well-being.
Massage involves working and acting on the body with pressure – structured, unstructured, stationary, or moving – tension, motion, or vibration, done manually or with mechanical aids. Target tissues may include muscles, tendons, ligaments, fascia, skin, joints, or other connective tissue, as well as lymphatic vessels, or organs of the gastrointestinal system. Massage can be applied with the hands, fingers, elbows, knees, forearm, and feet.
Group exercise is typically described as exercise performed by a group of individuals led by an instructor. A variety of group physiotherapy exercises formats exist, including (but not limited to) aerobics and dance choreographed to music, BOSU, core conditioning, Pilates, yoga, muscle conditioning, step, indoor cycling, kickboxing, sculpting, fall prevention and boot camp. Your choice of classes depends on the club or studio you attend, the expertise of the instructors, and the amount of time you have.
Group physiotherapy exercises offers a variety of benefits you might miss out on if you choose to work out on your own. Some of the benefits include exposure to a social and fun environment, a safe and effectively designed workout, a consistent exercise schedule, an accountability factor for participating in exercise, and a workout that requires no prior exercise knowledge or experience. Let’s take a look at how these benefits might apply to you.
Cardiovascular exercise, or aerobic exercise, is physical activity that can be performed for extended periods and uses major muscle groups. Aerobic exercise strengthens the heart and improves the body's ability to deliver oxygen to the muscles. There are many cardiovascular endurance exercises which can help with weight loss, muscle toning and improved heart health. The best way to stick with an aerobic program is to find types of physiotherapy exercises that you enjoy.
Coordination is one element of movement that is important in sports and in day-to-day living. Coordination generally refers to moving two or more parts of your body at the same time to achieve a specific goal. That could mean turning a doorknob, performing dance steps or hitting a baseball with a bat. Adding certain physiotherapy exercises to your daily routine may improve your coordination overall.
Loss of balance is common in certain medical conditions and the elderly. This can contribute to falls and difficulty walking. Balance and proprioception (joint position awareness) is important to improve your ability to regulate shifts in your body's centre of gravity while maintaining control. Balance exercises have been shown scientifically to prevent injury and are an important component of rehabilitation following lower limb injury. It is important to discuss the suitability of these exercises with your physiotherapist prior to commencing them.
Usually, balance physiotherapy exercises should be performed for 5 minutes per day initially and progressed to 10-15 minutes or longer provided they do not cause or increase symptoms. Generally you should select a range of physiotherapy exercises that challenge your balance without causing an increase in symptoms. Always set up your environment to ensure safety and prevent falls, in case you lose your balance (e.g. practice at a bench or with a spotter).
Stretching is a form of physiotherapy exercises in which a specific skeletal muscle (or muscle group) is deliberately stretched, often by abduction from the torso, in order to improve the muscle's felt elasticity and achieve comfortable muscle tone. The result is a feeling of increased muscle control, flexibility and range of motion. Stretching is also used therapeutically to alleviate cramps.