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A pathological increase in angle of torsion is called femoral anteversion, and a pathological decrease in the angle or reversal of torsion is known as femoral retroversion.
The human hip is a modified spherical (ball-and-socket) joint. Thus, the hip possesses three degrees of freedom of motion with three correspondingly arranged, mutually perpendicular axes that intersect at the geometric center of rotation of the spherical head. The transverse axis lies in the frontal plane and controls movements of flexion and extension. An anterior/ posterior axis lies in the sagittal plane and controls movements of adduction and abduction. A vertical axis that coincides with the long axis of the limb when the hip joint is in the neutral position controls movements of internal and external rotation.
Surface motion in the hip joint can be considered as spinning of the femoral head on the acetabulum. The pivoting of the bone socket in three planes around the center of rotation in the femoral head produces the spinning of the joint surfaces.
Greater Trochanteric Bursitis
Acetabular Labral Tear
Iliopsoas/ Iliopectineal Bursitis
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